I use many terms and strange Acronyms. most often while I am talking about technology
Packet: A term used in system networking that means the actual data and metadata sent though the system.
PING: A program that sends out ICMP packets in order to test networks or for fun.
ICMP, Internet Control Message Protocol. A base level protocol applied with the PING program. ICMP uses milliseconds to time the difference between the packet sent and the reply from the destination. Many gamers refer to the number shown as ping time.
Hops, a reference to the number of routers a packet must pass through to reach it's destination. the Tracert or traceroute commands can display this. a good usage of this number is to improve your "ping" to game servers. Often a slow ICMP reply is due to a large number of hops or a delay at one or two points. You can route around such things with proper knowledge
IP: Internet Protocol the baseline of standards used to communicate over the internet.
TCP and UDP: two basic level protocols that allow for connections over networks.
TCP is considered a "Reliable" protocol in that it operates on a three way handshake system that checks to ensure connection.
UDP however is "Unreliable" as it just spits out packets and does not check the connection afterward.
NT A term that refers to versions of Microsoft Windows Operating systems
I usually add a number or letters to the end to represent the version, for example NT5 and NT6 refer to Windows XP and Vista respectively.
Darwin 10.x Simply put, it's the actual name in system of the OS branded OSx. If you don't believe me go into your apple computer, search "Terminal" and type in 'uname -a' to get the full OS system name.
Centos: A Linux Dsitro based off of and binary compatible with Red Hat Enterprise Linux. A commonly accepted Linux Distro
FreeBSD : a Free and Open source UNIX distro based upon and a continuation of the Berkley Standard Distribution of Unix
Sec + : A certification that means I am qualified to manage both physical and virtual security. It also means I know a little of Hacking and counter hacking.
BASH: a very common shell for UNIX and Unix Like OSes
PowerShell: Microsoft's proprietary shell for windows, DO NOT USE IF YOU DO NOT KNOW WHAT YOU ARE DOING, YOU WILL DESTROY YOUR COMPUTER IF YOU ARE NOT CAREFUL .
Shell: A program that does the actual interaction with an OS' kernel, or core. A shell usually has a terminal that is text based, however all GUI based OS's have a shell of some kind because they still use it to interact with the kernel behind the scenes.
Kernel: The core of an OS, it interacts with the physical hardware via system calls and manages how programs access resources. It's literally the reason you don't break your computer every time you leave it on for too long after leaving.
Hypervisor: a program that operates either under, or over and OS. a hypervisor acts as a resource control for multiple OS's in a virtualized environment. You Cannot virtualize without one.
Over or Under and Inside,
A reference to what "Position" a program operates in relation to the OS.
By running Over an OS a program can run On Top Of the OS. that is, the OS must be on in order for the system to work. Like with the first versions of Microsoft Windows, MS Windows ran On Top Of MS DOS, and thus, ran Over the OS.
Running Under the OS simply means the program is running on Bare Metal, or more accurately is running at the Hardware Level. Many Hypervisors run under the OS.
Inside the OS. this is where many "Normal" programs run, there are a few hypervisors that run Inside the OS, like VMWare Workstation.